Traditional operable window types include the projected or hinged types such as casement, awning, and hopper, and the sliding types such as double- and single-hung and horizontal sliding. This section on Operator Types describes how these typical windows work.
Traditionally, windows have been made from clear glass, but advanced technologies have significantly improved the thermal performance of glass. This section on Glazing Types describes some of these technologies.
Gas fills improve the thermal performance of insulating glazing units by reducing the conductance of the air space between the layers. This section on Gas Fills describes the thermal performance benefits of adding gas to an IGU.
The layers of glazing in an insulating unit must be held apart at the appropriate distance by spacers. Warm edge spacers have become increasingly important as manufacturers switch from conventional double glazing to higher-performance glazing. This section on Spacers describes the different spacer technologies.
The material used to manufacture the frame governs the physical characteristics of the window, such as frame thickness, weight, and durability. It also has a major impact on the thermal characteristics of the window. This section on Frame Types describes the performance impact of different frame materials and how they influence the total window performance.